Evaluation of The Prevalence, Typology and Complications of Female Genital Cutting in Patients of Bazega Health Clinics
This study was devised to evaluate the typology and complications of FGC among the clientele of health clinics in the rural provinces of Bazega and Zoundweogo, as part of the activities of the Bazega field research station Laboratoire de SantÃ© Communautaire (LSC).More info →
Abstract- The process of paradigmatic attitudinal change has been analyzed by the use of multimethods and multileveled internalization theories. Forty-six informants (a network of activists and a group of Gambian women) have described their change of attitude to female genital cutting. This study shows that internalizing a packet of information as adults, that contradicts an old schema of knowledge internalized as children, can be experienced as epistemologically very painful. Activists in Norway who have changed their attitude to FGC have got information from different educational institutions, from seminars and conferences, from work as interpreters in hospitals, and from discussions among families and friends. Information can be received, listened to and subsequently discarded. In order to design FGC-abandonment campaigns, the importance of the internalization process in order for the individual to make an attitudinal change must be understood.More info →
Meaning-making of female genital cutting: children’s perception and acquired knowledge of the ritual.
Abstract: How do girls who have undergone female genital cutting understand the ritual? This study provides an analysis of the learning process and knowledge acquired in their meaning-making process. Eighteen participants were interviewed in qualitative indepth interviews. Women in Norway, mostly with Somali or Gambian backgrounds, were asked about their experiences of circumcision. Two different strategies were used to prepare girls for circumcision, ie, one involving giving some information and the other keeping the ritual a secret. Findings indicate that these two approaches affected the girls' meaning-making differently, but both strategies seemed to lead to the same educational outcome. The learning process is carefully monitored and regulated but is brought to a halt, stopping short of critical reflexive thinking. The knowledge tends to be deeply internalized, embodied, and morally embraced. The meaning-making process is discussed by analyzing the use of metaphors and narratives. Given that the educational outcome is characterized by limited knowledge without critical reflection, behavior change programs to end female genital cutting should identify and implement educational stimuli that are likely to promote critical reflexive thinking.More info →
Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice that involves "the partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons." The current
WHO classification describes four types of FGM/C: Type I, clitoridectomy, involves partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or the prepuce. Type II, excision, involves partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision
of the labia majora. Type III, infibulation, involves narrowing of the vaginal orifice with creation of a covering seal by cutting and appositioning the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or without excision of the clitoris. Type IV, other, involves all
other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, for example: pricking, piercing, incising, scraping, and cauterization.
Report from Kunnskapssenteret (Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services)
Background: In November 2008, the Norwegian Knowledge Centre for Violence and
Traumatic Stress Studies (NKVTS) commissioned the Norwegian Knowledge Centre
for the Health Services (NOKC) to conduct a systematic review about the consequences
of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). The review would answer the question:
What are the psychological, social and sexual consequences of FGM/C?
Background: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice
that involves the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or
other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. This systematic
review aimed to fi ll a gap in synthesized evidence of the obstetric sequelae
of FGM/C. We included 44 primary studies, 28 of which compared groups of women
with FGM/C to women with no or different types of genital modifi cations.
The traditional practice of female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C) covers a range of procedures (clitoridectomy, excision, infi bulation, and other) performed on the genitals of females of different ages. This systematic review aimed to summarize empirical quantitative research describing the gynecological consequences of FGM/C on girls and women. We included 136 primary studies, 42 of which compared groups of women who had been subjected to FGM/C with women who had no or different types of genital alterations. The main finding is that FGM/C has harmful consequences for a woman’s gynecological health.
We found that:
• Women with FGM/C seem to be more likely than women without FGM/C to experience urinary tract infection, bacterial vaginosis, and pain during intercourse.
• There seems to be a trend for women with FGM/C to be more likely than women without FGM/C to experience: burning/painful urination, problems with menstruation, vaginal discharge and vaginal itching.
• There seems to be no clear trend for either a greater or lower risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among women who have undergone FGM/C.
• There were insuffi cient data for us to conclude whether the risk of other gynecological complications (tissue damage, vaginal adhesions and obstructions, cysts, infertility) is different among women with FGM/C compared to women without FGM/C, and whether various FGM/C types differentially affect the risk of other gynecological complications (except regarding urinary tract infection).
This systematic review found that sufficient evidence exist to concludethat women who have undergone FGM/C suffer a greater risk of gynecological complications than women who have not undergone the procedure. There were no indications of gynecological benefi ts of FGM/C. Rather, there is a real chance of under-reporting of many of the health issues covered in this systematic review.