Empowering the Next Generations to Abandon Female Genital Mutilation (FGM): Integrating the Topic FGM into School Education in Burkina Faso

Empowering the Next Generations to Abandon Female Genital Mutilation (FGM): Integrating the Topic FGM into School Education in Burkina Faso

GIZ supported the integration of FGM as a topic within the school education system in Burkina Faso as a long term approach that will lead to social change and the abandonment of FGM. This report highlights the effectiveness of the “Ending Female Genital Mutilation” program administered by GIZ in charge of education More info →
Abandoning Female Genital Mutilation: A Guide to Preaching and a Model Sermon

Abandoning Female Genital Mutilation: A Guide to Preaching and a Model Sermon

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Genre: Journal Articles
This guide is a tool for planning a sermon or any other communication method based on religious means to explain the position of Islam towards FGM and to encourage people to collectively abandon the practice More info →
Strengthening the Competence of Religious Leaders in Promoting the Abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation

Strengthening the Competence of Religious Leaders in Promoting the Abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation

One way of inducing behavior change and promoting the abandonment of FGM/C in Mauritania is by encouraging religious leaders to sensitize their communities about the practice that is falsely associated with Islam. GIZ’s supra-regional project “Ending Female Genital More info →
Immediate health consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)

Immediate health consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)

Background: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has been performed in various forms for millennia and involves the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. In this systematic review we addressed harm occurring during the cutting or alteration modifi cation process and the short-term period. • We included 56 observational studies that documented immediate complications. There were 14 studies in which two or more groups of girls and women with different types of FGM/C were compared with regards to the occurrence of one or more acute complications. There are three main fi ndings: • The most common immediate FGM/C complications were pain, excessive bleeding, swelling, problems with wound healing, urine retention. • The girls and women undergoing FGM/C often suffered more than one immediate complication. • There were few differences in risk of immediate complications among different types of FGM/C, but there might be a greater risk of immediate complications for women with FGM/C type III (infi bulation) compared to types I-II. • There was evidence of under reporting of complications. However, the fi ndings show that the FGM/C procedure unequivocally causes immediate, and typically several, health complications during the FGM/C procedure and the short-term period. Each of the most common complications occurred in more than one of every ten girls and women who undergo FGM/C. The participants in these studies had FGM/C types I through IV, thus immediate complications such as bleeding and swelling occur in setting with all forms of FGM/C. Even FGM/C type I and type IV ’nick’, the forms of FGM/C with least anatomical extent, presented immediate complications. The results document that multiple immediate and quite serious complications can result from FGM/C. These results should be viewed in light of long-term complications, such as obstetric and gynecological problems, and protection of human rights. More info →
Gynecological consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)

Gynecological consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)

The traditional practice of female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C) covers a range of procedures (clitoridectomy, excision, infi bulation, and other) performed on the genitals of females of different ages. This systematic review aimed to summarize empirical quantitative research describing the gynecological consequences of FGM/C on girls and women. We included 136 primary studies, 42 of which compared groups of women who had been subjected to FGM/C with women who had no or different types of genital alterations. The main fi nding is that FGM/C has harmful consequences for a woman’s gynecological health. We found that: • Women with FGM/C seem to be more likely than women without FGM/C to experience urinary tract infection, bacterial vaginosis, and pain during intercourse. • There seems to be a trend for women with FGM/C to be more likely than women without FGM/C to experience: burning/painful urination, problems with menstruation, vaginal discharge and vaginal itching. • There seems to be no clear trend for either a greater or lower risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among women who have undergone FGM/C. • There were insuffi cient data for us to conclude whether the risk of other gynecological complications (tissue damage, vaginal adhesions and obstructions, cysts, infertility) is different among women with FGM/C compared to women without FGM/C, and whether various FGM/C types differentially affect the risk of other gynecological complications (except regarding urinary tract infection). This systematic review found that suffi cient evidence exist to conclude that women who have undergone FGM/C suffer a greater risk of gynecological complications than women who have not undergone the procedure. There were no indications of gynecological benefi ts of FGM/C. Rather, there is a real chance of under-reporting of many of the health issues covered in this systematic review. More info →
Immediate health consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)

Immediate health consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)

Background: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has been performed in various forms for millennia and involves the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. In this systematic review we addressed harm occurring during the cutting or alteration modifi cation process and the short-term period. • We included 56 observational studies that documented immediate complications. There were 14 studies in which two or more groups of girls and women with different types of FGM/C were compared with regards to the occurrence of one or more acute complications. There are three main fi ndings: • The most common immediate FGM/C complications were pain, excessive bleeding, swelling, problems with wound healing, urine retention. • The girls and women undergoing FGM/C often suffered more than one immediate complication. • There were few differences in risk of immediate complications among different types of FGM/C, but there might be a greater risk of immediate complications for women with FGM/C type III (infi bulation) compared to types I-II. • There was evidence of under reporting of complications. However, the fi ndings show that the FGM/C procedure unequivocally causes immediate, and typically several, health complications during the FGM/C procedure and the short-term period. Each of the most common complications occurred in more than one of every ten girls and women who undergo FGM/C. The participants in these studies had FGM/C types I through IV, thus immediate complications such as bleeding and swelling occur in setting with all forms of FGM/C. Even FGM/C type I and type IV ’nick’, the forms of FGM/C with least anatomical extent, presented immediate complications. The results document that multiple immediate and quite serious complications can result from FGM/C. These results should be viewed in light of long-term complications, such as obstetric and gynecological problems, and protection of human rights. More info →
Effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce the prevalence of female genital mutilation/cutting

Effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce the prevalence of female genital mutilation/cutting

Background: In November 2008, the Norwegian Knowledge Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies commissioned the Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services to do a systematic review about the effectiveness of interventions to prevent female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). The review would answer the question: What is the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce the prevalence of female genital mutilation/cutting compared to no or any other intervention? More info →