This document presents the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Egypt. It was undertaken to provide estimates for key population indicators including fertility, contraceptive use, infant and child mortality, immunization levels, maternal and child health, and nutrition. To obtain this information, a nationally representative sample of 16,527 ever-married women age 15-49 was interviewed.More info →
Meaning-making of female genital cutting: children’s perception and acquired knowledge of the ritual.
Abstract: How do girls who have undergone female genital cutting understand the ritual? This study provides an analysis of the learning process and knowledge acquired in their meaning-making process. Eighteen participants were interviewed in qualitative indepth interviews. Women in Norway, mostly with Somali or Gambian backgrounds, were asked about their experiences of circumcision. Two different strategies were used to prepare girls for circumcision, ie, one involving giving some information and the other keeping the ritual a secret. Findings indicate that these two approaches affected the girls' meaning-making differently, but both strategies seemed to lead to the same educational outcome. The learning process is carefully monitored and regulated but is brought to a halt, stopping short of critical reflexive thinking. The knowledge tends to be deeply internalized, embodied, and morally embraced. The meaning-making process is discussed by analyzing the use of metaphors and narratives. Given that the educational outcome is characterized by limited knowledge without critical reflection, behavior change programs to end female genital cutting should identify and implement educational stimuli that are likely to promote critical reflexive thinking.More info →
The traditional practice of female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C) covers a range of procedures (clitoridectomy, excision, infi bulation, and other) performed on the genitals of females of different ages. This systematic review aimed to summarize empirical quantitative research describing the gynecological consequences of FGM/C on girls and women. We included 136 primary studies, 42 of which compared groups of women who had been subjected to FGM/C with women who had no or different types of genital alterations. The main finding is that FGM/C has harmful consequences for a woman’s gynecological health.
We found that:
• Women with FGM/C seem to be more likely than women without FGM/C to experience urinary tract infection, bacterial vaginosis, and pain during intercourse.
• There seems to be a trend for women with FGM/C to be more likely than women without FGM/C to experience: burning/painful urination, problems with menstruation, vaginal discharge and vaginal itching.
• There seems to be no clear trend for either a greater or lower risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among women who have undergone FGM/C.
• There were insuffi cient data for us to conclude whether the risk of other gynecological complications (tissue damage, vaginal adhesions and obstructions, cysts, infertility) is different among women with FGM/C compared to women without FGM/C, and whether various FGM/C types differentially affect the risk of other gynecological complications (except regarding urinary tract infection).
This systematic review found that sufficient evidence exist to concludethat women who have undergone FGM/C suffer a greater risk of gynecological complications than women who have not undergone the procedure. There were no indications of gynecological benefi ts of FGM/C. Rather, there is a real chance of under-reporting of many of the health issues covered in this systematic review.
Background: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has been performed in various forms for millennia and involves the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. In this systematic review we addressed harm occurring during the cutting or alteration modifi cation process and the short-term period. • We included 56 observational studies that documented immediate complications. There were 14 studies in which two or more groups of girls and women with different types of FGM/C were compared with regards to the occurrence of one or more acute complications. There are three main fi ndings: • The most common immediate FGM/C complications were pain, excessive bleeding, swelling, problems with wound healing, urine retention. • The girls and women undergoing FGM/C often suffered more than one immediate complication. • There were few differences in risk of immediate complications among different types of FGM/C, but there might be a greater risk of immediate complications for women with FGM/C type III (infi bulation) compared to types I-II. • There was evidence of underreporting of complications. However, the fi ndings show that the FGM/C procedure unequivocally causes immediate, and typically several, health complications during the FGM/C procedure and the short-term period. Each of the most common complications occurred in more than one of every ten girls and women who undergo FGM/C. The participants in these studies had FGM/C types I through IV, thus immediate complications such as bleeding and swelling occur in setting with all forms of FGM/C. Even FGM/C type I and type IV ’nick’, the forms of FGM/C with least anatomical extent, presented immediate complications. The results document that multiple immediate and quite serious complications can result from FGM/C. These results should be viewed in light of long-term complications, such as obstetric and gynecological problems, and protection of human rights.More info →
Working to End Female Genital Mutilation and Cutting in Tanzania: The Role and Response of the Church
This study was designed based on quantitative and qualitative research methodologies to understand the current extent of FGM/C in the churches and communities of Mara, Singida and Dodoma Regions, including the nature and extent of the practice.More info →
Following a series of discussions on Islam and FGM/C with religious leaders in Kenyaâ€™s Somali-dominated North Eastern Province, scholars agreed that infibulation should end, but did not achieve consensus on other aspects of FGM/C. Continuing steps include mobilizing Imams as community advocates against FGM/C and engaging communities in group discussions about justifications for continuing the practice.More info →
This report presents the outcome of a Mid-Term Review of the project â€œPractice Reduction and Awareness on Female Genital Mutilationâ€ implemented by Young Womenâ€™s Christian Association (YWCA) Kenya in three geographical areas, Kisii, Meru and Kajiado.More info →